Code::Blocks apparently does not support the latest Intel C/C++ compiler out of the box. Trying to set up the necessary include paths for both the Visual Studio compiler and the Intel compiler leads to madness.
But there is an easier way:
Make two Intel compiler entries in Code::Blocks for the 32 and 64 bit version with the correct base directory, e.g. C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\Composer XE\bin.
The 32 bit toolchain executables are prefixed ia32\, the 64 bit ones intel64\.
When you have installed the Intel compiler, there is an 'Command Prompt with Intel Compiler' entry in the start menu for 32 and 64 bit targets each. This opens a command prompt with all necessary paths and environment variables set correctly.
Just start codeblocks.exe from this command prompt and it inherits the environment. Then you can select the 32 or 64 bit Intel compiler option in the 'Project->Build options' and it works without further ado.
The only thing you cannot do is switching between 32 and 64 bit targets on the fly, you have to start Code::Blocks with the correct environment first.